Maria Witwicka. Born in Biała near Czortków (Ukrainian: Chortkiv) on 8 September 1930. Her parents ran a farm and the only Polish grocery in the village. Before World War I Maria Witwicka’ father went to work in Canada where he was a blacksmith. In 1914, he was interned as an Austro-Hungarian citizen; he returned home after the end of the war. Maria Witwicka completed two forms of a primary school before 1939. After the entry of the Soviets her older brother who was a secondary school student was deported deep into the Soviet Union. After 1941 he joined the Polish Army, in 1945, he settled in Warsaw. Maria Witwicka started learning in the seventh form of a Polish school in Chortkiv in 1944. In 1945, she started working in a bank in Chortkiv, studying at an extramural financial college in Lvov at the same time. She visited her brother in Poland several times. She retired in 1989 and now lives in Chortkiv.